Microstructural investigation on the grain refinement occurring in Cu-doped Ni-Ti thin films
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The mechanism of grain refinement in Cu-doped Ni-Ti thin films have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Sputter deposited (Ni,Cu)-rich Ni-Ti-Cu thin films exhibited a columnar structure consisting of grains with a decreasing lateral size with increasing Cu content. Cu-rich grain boundary segregations were found to become prominent in films containing higher Cu contents. These segregations were attributed to a non-polymorphic crystallisation process which lowered the grain growth rate in relation to the Cu content in the films.
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