Paired refinement under the control of PAIREF
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Crystallographic resolution is a key characteristic of diffraction data and represents one of the first decisions an experimenter has to make in data evaluation. Conservative approaches to the high-resolution cutoff determination are based on a number of criteria applied to the processed X-ray diffraction data only. However, high-resolution data that are weaker than arbitrary cutoffs can still result in the improvement of electron-density maps and refined structure models. Therefore, the impact of reflections from resolution shells higher than those previously used in conservative structure refinement should be analysed by the paired refinement protocol. For this purpose, a tool called PAIREF was developed to provide automation of this protocol. As a new feature, a complete cross-validation procedure has also been implemented. Here, the design, usage and control of the program are described, and its application is demonstrated on six data sets. The results prove that the inclusion of high-resolution data beyond the conventional criteria can lead to more accurate structure models.
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