Modeling Complex Systems by Structural Invariants Approach
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When modeling complex systems, we usually encounter the following difficulties: partiality, large amount of data, and uncertainty of conclusions. It can be said that none of the known approaches solves these difficulties perfectly, especially in cases where we expect emergences in the complex system. The most common is the physical approach, sometimes reinforced by statistical procedures. The physical approach to modeling leads to a complicated description of phenomena associated with a relatively simple geometry. If we assume emergences in the complex system, the physical approach is not appropriate at all. In this article, we apply the approach of structural invariants, which has the opposite properties: a simple description of phenomena associated with a more complicated geometry (in our case pregeometry). It does not require as much data and the calculations are simple. The price paid for the apparent simplicity is a qualitative interpretation of the results, which carries a special type of uncertainty. Attention is mainly focused (in this article) on the invariant matroid and bases of matroid (M, BM) in combination with the Ramsey graph theory. In addition, this article introduces a calculus that describes the emergent phenomenon using two quantities-the power of the emergent phenomenon and the complexity of the structure that is associated with this phenomenon. The developed method is used in the paper for modeling and detecting emergent situations in cases of water floods, traffic jams, and phase transition in chemistry.
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